Gary Habermas has a great approach to the resurrection. Rather than fighting the battle on all fronts, he focuses on three basic facts accepted by the majority of New Testament scholars. These three facts are the empty tomb, the reports of post-mortem appearances, and the disciples’ sincere faith.
We’re going to infer the resurrection from the three facts as the best explanation of the evidence. For that reason, there isn’t the standard premise, premise, conclusion format that you might see in other sorts of arguments. Instead, we’ll substantiate the facts, and then assert that the resurrection is the best explanation on offer based on a few simple criteria.
The case relies on the Bible somewhat, but not as an inspired or inerrant document. All that we need to believe as it relates to the Bible is what everyone (even atheist scholars) agrees to, that the Bible is a collection of documents that have survived from the first century. Bruce Metzger, a New Testament Scholar and Princeton professor, as well as John A T Robinson, a former lecturer at Cambridge, agree that the New Testament that we have is more than 99% accurate to what the original authors wrote.1 We can be satisfied that we know what they said; later, we’ll examine if they told the truth.
Fact One: The Empty Tomb. In the interest of keeping this brief, we’ll look at a couple of things — first, the women followers. If the tomb wasn’t empty, they just made up the women’s story discovering it vacant. Ancient Israel considered women unreliable, so it’s unreasonable to think that the original disciples would make up a story about the empty tomb and include only unreliable witnesses. If they invented the empty tomb, they would have included reliable witnesses.
Also, the burial story is strange if the tomb wasn’t empty. Jesus was buried in Joseph of Arimathea’s tomb, a member of the same council that condemned Jesus. It is unreasonable to believe that the earliest Christians would fabricate a story about a good and honorable person among the same group that pulled off their lord’s judicial murder. So it seems most reasonable to believe that they buried Jesus in Joseph’s tomb, and the earliest disciples just reported on what happened, even if it did cast a member of the Sanhedrin in a sympathetic light. Now, if the tomb had not been empty and was instead still occupied by Jesus’s body, then why didn’t Joseph produce the body? Joseph would have had a motive to exonerate himself and the Sanhedrin by showing Jesus was still dead. Since he was buried in a known location by a member of the same group that killed him, it becomes inexplicable why they didn’t just produce the body if it had still been there.
Fact Two: The reports of post-mortem appearances. It is undeniable that people reported seeing Jesus. It is recorded multiple times from multiple different sources in the New Testament Documents (Matthew, Luke, John, Acts, 1 Corinthians, etc.). The authors themselves claim to have seen Jesus, and we have their written record. We’ll explore whether they lied about it later; right now we want to recognize that they did claim to see Jesus.
Fact Three: The sincere faith of the disciples. This is also undeniable. The disciples suffered persecution and died rather than recant their faith. You might say they were sincerely wrong, but you can’t say that they weren’t sincere.
Much more could be said in defense of these facts, but I will leave it there in the interest of brevity. Next, we’ll explore explanations of these facts and determine which is the best one. Most scholars will agree to the following criteria for evaluating historical evidence.2
- Explanatory scope: Does the explanation explain all of the facts?
- Explanatory power: How well does the explanation explain the facts?
- Plausibility: Does the explanation contradict things we know?
- Ad Hoc: Does the explanation require us to adopt unsubstantiated beliefs?
When we examine the alternatives by these criteria, we see that nothing comes close to the resurrection. Think of the popular alternative explanations below:
Conspiracy Hypothesis: The Disciples Stole the Body.
- Explanatory Power: This doesn’t explain the sincerity of the disciple’s faith. If they lied about it, why would they die for the lie?
- Plausibility: Conspiracy theories tend to fall apart. Why should we believe that these fishermen were able to pull this off?
Hallucination Hypothesis: The Disciples Hallucinated Appearances of Jesus.
- Explanatory Power: This might explain the appearances and the sincerity of the disciples, but what about the empty tomb? If they hallucinated the appearances, then the tomb would have still had Jesus’ body. It also does a poor job of explaining the appearances. Hallucinations are private affairs; how does this explain the appearances to groups?
- Ad Hoc: We’re being asked to believe that the disciples were mentally unstable, but there is no evidence of that. Remember that we have their writings and the writings of their disciples. There isn’t any reason to believe that the disciples were mentally unhinged.
If you apply the grid of Explanatory Scope, Explanatory Power, Plausibility, and Ad Hoc, you will find that nothing fits the evidence the resurrection does. For that reason, the resurrection is the best explanation of the evidence, and the rational thing to do is to believe it.
1 Geisler, Norman L. Systematic Theology In One Volume. Bloomington, MN: Bethany House Publishers, 2011.
2 Craig, William Lane. On Guard: Defending Your Faith with Reason and Precision. Colorado Springs, CO: David C. Cook, 2010.